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Display – Performance Materials

3D – Three-Dimensional Perception

Since the eyes always send two images to the brain at once, people are able to apprehend their surroundings in three dimensions. The different viewing angles are then translated into the geometric dimensions of an object – height, depth and width. This perception works in three ways: Using special glasses, the display image can be split into an image for the right eye and one for the left. Polarization glasses thus make use of purely optical effects. Shutter glasses use an electro-optical effect when switching. Leading manufacturers are currently working on autostereoscopic displays. They represent different images in different viewing angles – the viewer does not need glasses.

3D films watched with shutter glasses do not create the images simultaneously, but one after the other.

Perception with shutter glasses
The TV sector is signaling a new era for 3D television, since image quality in conjunction with high definition televisions (HDTV) is not yet satisfactory with most 3D technologies. The 'frame sequential' method is currently the most widespread. This 3D HDTV technology shows images for the left and right eye alternately at high speed – at 120 hertz, for example, this means 60 images per second for each eye. This technology can only be used with shutter glasses. The impression of depth is created in the brain and a three-dimensional image is formed. The lenses in the shutter glasses switch electronically between permeable and impermeable by darkening the right or left lens alternately as the displayed images switch. For shutter glasses, displays are used which permit very high frame rates, so that the overlap between the image for the right eye and the image for the left is imperceptible.

High speed liquid crystal mixtures from EMD Performance Materials
EMD Performance Materials develops, produces and sells high speed liquid crystal mixtures for active 3D shutter glasses. Liquid crystals and reactive mesogens  from EMD Performance Materials allow the high frame rates in 3D screens necessary for 3D applications with shorter switching times.


Perception with polarization glasses
In contrast, the method with polarization glasses is based on purely optical effects. A structured film changes the polarization of light in a targeted way, creating different images for the right and left eye. To do this, the structured film must be positioned exactly on the LCD. It consists of polymerized reactive mesogens on a substrate. The polarization means that each image is seen separately using simple passive polarization glasses. This means: The image for the left eye is created with the even lines of the pixel structure, the image for the right eye with the odd lines. This is because the structured optical film applied polarizes the light of the even lines of the display with a rotation to the left, and that of the odd lines with a rotation to the right. The images for the left and right eye are thus polarized differently and encrypted.

Reactive mesogens for improved image quality
EMD Performance Materials offers reactive mesogens under the licrivue® brand name for use in structured films. They provide better image quality in 3D displays which work in combination with passive polarization glasses. Thanks to their anisotropic properties, reactive mesogens and the polymer films made from them are also suitable for optical components in other flat screens.

In addition, reactive mesogens are a regular feature in the development of autostereoscopic displays.

Reactive mesogens allow 3D displays which can be viewed with polarized glasses.